The Universal Periodic Review (UPR) is a monitoring mechanism established under the Human Rights Council. For relevant country reviews, IDSN contributes to preparing joint UPR submissions on caste-based discrimination in association with its members and associates.

During the reviews of caste-affected countries in the first two UPR cycles, several caste-related observations and recommendations have been raised by other states. Click on the link below to see all recommendations (go to section on UPR):

Download a compilation of UN references to caste discrimination, including in the Universal Periodic Review

See IDSN database for documents related to the UPR and caste

For more information on specific UPR outcomes and links to stakeholders’ submissions, click on the countries below:


In the UPR process, each UN member state is reviewed periodically every four years on its human rights record. 48 countries are reviewed each year, starting in 2008. The review is carried out by a working group composed of members of the Council and is facilitated by groups of three member states (the “troika”). As part of the review, NGOs are encouraged to submit alternative reports, not exceeding five pages, to the OHCHR approximately six months in advance of the review.

The review of countries is based on three types of documents:

  1. A national report prepared by the state under review.
  2. A compilation of information contained in the reports of treaty bodies, special procedures, and other relevant UN documents, prepared by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR).
  3. A summary of “additional credible and reliable information” received from other relevant stakeholders, including NGOs and well as national human rights institutions, not exceeding 10 pages, compiled by the OHCHR

Visit the OHCHR website for more information on the UPR, incl. guidelines on how to prepare NGO submissions

UPR – introduction and analysis

The Danish Institute for Human Rights has prepared two publications on the Universal Periodic Review. The first one is an introduction that gives a description of the functioning of the UPR. It is targeted at human rights professionals and activists. The second publication is a ‘guide’ to the first cycle of the UPR. Focusing on reporting methodologies, it is intended to inspire all actors involved in the process.

 Best Practices on the follow-up process of the UPR regarding India